Fitness Resources

Month: May 2017

Why Nutrition Is the Most Important Part of Fitness Eat Right to Change Your Body, Health, and Life

An Overview of Sports Nutrition


The food we eat plays a vital role in how we look and feel. Regular exercise is important but according to research, nutrition has the largest impact on our fitness. Using food as our medicine has become a popular theme for health improvement.

The trend is now to focus on healthy food intake as a primary fitness goal. When healthy eating habits become a lifestyle, we are healthier and happier. Eating right allows us to reduce body fat, lose a few pounds, feel more confident and reduce our risk of illness.

Chronic studies are indicating healthy food intake as the most important part of our fitness programs. Some physicians are teaching healthy eating habits/lifestyle as a way to improve overall health reducing obesity and related disease.

Food is Our Medicine

Eat Right for a Lean and Healthy Body. skynesher / Getty Images

Nutrient-dense foods or superfoods include lean proteins, healthy carbohydrates, and fats essential to our health. Superfoods are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

Antioxidants are shown to reduce inflammation in our body helping us fight disease and illness. Inflammation is said to be the leading cause of many diseases. Powerful antioxidants in leafy greens and vegetables, for example, help detoxify the body removing harmful chemicals.

Some superfoods contain compounds that increase our metabolism for more efficient fat burning. Red peppers contain a molecule called capsaicin shown to enhance the rate we burn body fat.

Eating healthy food will not only help improve our health but also enable us to finally reach desired fitness goals.

How Do Quercetin Rich Foods Help?

Quercetin is a powerful antioxidant naturally occurring in a wide variety of plant foods. In fact, quercetin research indicates it to be one of the most potent antioxidants with numerous health benefits.

Many athletes supplement with quercetin to reduce muscle inflammation caused by intense workouts. According to a study published in the International Journal of Preventative Medicine, quercetin supplementation significantly improved athletic performance, increased metabolic rate and lean mass among athletes.

The following foods are a rich source of quercetin:

  • Apples
  • Onions
  • Broccoli
  • Berries

Increase Your Metabolism Naturally

Your best fat burner is not going to come in a bottle but by eating foods containing certain compounds. We can increase the rate we burn fat naturally according to nutrition research.

Eating foods that stimulate and enhance the fat burning process will help us reduce fat more effectively. Adding metabolism boosting foods will be a great supplement to your existing workout and nutrition program.

The following foods are shown to increase our metabolism:

  • Hot peppers (active component capsaicin)
  • Green tea (active component caffeine)
  • Black coffee (active component caffeine)
  • Cold water (500 ml of water daily increased metabolic rate by 30%)
  • Whole grains (aiding component fiber and iron)
  • Yogurt (aiding component calcium and probiotics)
  • Apples (aiding component fiber)
  • Nuts and seeds (aiding component essential fatty acids)
  • Fatty fish (aiding component Omega-3 fatty acids)

Peanut Butter is a Superfood

Peanut butter just so happens to be the number one sports nutrition superfood. It contains healthy fat, is nutrient-dense and shown to provide long-lasting energy for optimal athletic performance.

Selecting natural or organic peanut butter is recommended to avoid added sugar and preservatives. Peanut butter is high in fiber and an excellent source of plant protein. It also contains niacin, folate, vitamin E and other essential nutrients and minerals.

Peanut butter contains quality nutrients and supplies lasting energy at 90 calories per 2 tablespoon serving. It also contains 7 grams of protein per ounce compared to other nuts only supplying 4 grams. Adequate protein intake is essential for muscle growth.

It is low in saturated fat and cholesterol making it a heart healthy food. Research indicates consuming 1.5 ounces of peanut butter per day may reduce the risk of heart disease.

What are Fitness Foods?

The term fitness food is interchangeable the superfoods. Eating a diet rich in fitness foods is essential to our health. Incorporating healthy nutrition and knowing what that means is vital to achieving a lean and healthy body.

The following is a favored list of superfoods among fitness enthusiasts:

  • Oats (high in fiber, improves digestion/increases metabolism)
  • Eggs (protein source, muscle building)
  • Greens (antioxidants, reduces inflammation)
  • Apples (antioxidants, reduces inflammation/increases metabolism)
  • Lean meats/fish (amino acids, protein source, muscle building)

Is Coffee Healthy or Not?

Should we drink coffee? This is a popular question and although not the best drink for some, overall studies show coffee as beneficial to our health and fitness.

Coffee contains antioxidants but also caffeine. Caffeine is a natural stimulant shown to increase our metabolic rate. Many athletes are using coffee as a pre-workout drink to benefit from this effect. Low to moderate doses (1-2 cups) of coffee are shown to significantly improve athletic performance.

Drinking black coffee 30 minutes prior to exercise is said to have the best ergogenic results. It’s shown to improve our endurance and enable us to exercise longer.

Coffee is also indicated to improve our mental focus and increase energy levels. Clearer thinking promotes a more productive and effective workout. Coffee is also shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain.

Coffee also contains powerful antioxidants shown to reduce chronic disease and illness. Studies have shown it help individuals suffering from Parkinson’s disease and to reduce the incidence of gallstones.

Because caffeine is a stimulant, it’s recommended to consult your physician if you are hypertensive, pregnant, have diagnosed heart disease, or are nursing prior to drinking coffee.

Eat Superfoods Daily

Superfoods play an important part in achieving and maintaining a healthy body. Nutritionists may vary in their lists of which foods are best but agree they’re all essential. Eating a wide variety of superfoods daily will satisfy nutrient requirements for optimal body functioning.

Start with the following top superfoods for improved health and fitness:

  • Oats (high in fiber, improved digestion, heart health)
  • Blueberries (antioxidants, reduces inflammation, cancer-fighting)
  • Apples (antioxidants, reduces inflammation, weight loss)
  • Green tea (antioxidants, increases metabolism, weight loss)
  • Flaxseed (essential fatty acids, increases metabolism, reduces inflammation)
  • Broccoli (antioxidants, cancer-fighting, detox)
  • Yogurt (calcium, probiotic, improved digestion, bone health)
  • Olive oil (monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/heart health)
  • Beans (high in fiber, antioxidants, improved brain function)
  • Cinnamon (antioxidants, detox, healing spice)


Di Noia J. Defining Powerhouse Fruits and Vegetables: A Nutrient Density Approach. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:130390.

Emilio Ros, Health Benefits of Nut Consumption, National Institutes of Health, 2010

Erica R Goldstein et al., International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance, 1/27/10

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Water-Induced Thermogenesis, Michael Boschmann, 7/2/13

Coconut Milk Nutrition Facts Calories in Coconut Milk and Health Benefits



Is coconut milk healthy? The creamy liquid is a popular ingredient in soups, exotic drinks, and some health foods. But if you’re trying to watch your weight or reduce your fat intake, you might want to pay attention to coconut milk calories and nutrition. Then decide if the beverage is right for you.

Coconut Milk Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 1 tbsp (15 g)
Per Serving % Daily Value*
Calories 35
Calories from Fat 32
Total Fat 3.6g 6%
Saturated Fat 3.2g 16%
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 0.2g
Cholesterol 0mg 0%
Sodium 2mg 0%
Potassium 39.45mg 1%
Carbohydrates 0.8g 0%
Dietary Fiber 0.3g 1%
Sugars 0.5g
Protein 0.3g
Vitamin A 0% · Vitamin C 1%
Calcium 0% · Iron 1%
*Based on a 2,000 calorie diet

To understand coconut milk nutrition it’s important to understand what coconut milk is. It is not the liquid that you see right away when you open a coconut. Coconut milk is created when the meat of the coconut is grated and pressed. The fatty cream that results is sometimes blended with water to create coconut milk. Like dairy milk, coconut milk can be higher in fat or lower in fat depending on how it is blended.

Coconut milk nutrition depends on the variety and brand that you buy (or make at home).  Natural coconut milk has a higher fat content because it hasn’t been blended with other ingredients. One cup of unsweetened coconut milk (coconut cream) provides 560 calories, almost 58 grams of fat and over 51 grams of saturated fat.

But you may not use an entire cup of this kind of coconut milk. If you use it as cream in your coffee, and consume just a tablespoon of the creamy treat, you’ll only consume 35 calories and under 4 grams of fat (as indicated on the label).

So what about the low-calorie coconut milk brands that you see in the grocery store? Those coconut milk products are blended with water and other ingredients (like sugar) to make the beverage. Silk Original Coconutmilk provides 80 calories per cup, 5 grams of fat and 4.5 grams of saturated fat. Pacific Organic Coconut Non-Dairy Beverage is even lower in fat and calories with just 45 calories per cup, 4 grams of fat and 4 grams of saturated fat.

Health Benefits of Coconut Milk

Some diet experts promote the health benefits of coconut milk. They say that real coconut milk (not blended with sugar and other ingredients), coconut cream, and coconut oil contain high levels of lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid. Some believe that lauric acid can have positive effects on your “good” HDL cholesterol.

But a large review of research studies was not able to confirm that claim. Researchers found that coconut oil can raise total and “bad” LDL cholesterol more than plant-based oils, but less than butter. They went on to say that consuming certain coconut products did not seem to increase the chances of heart problems. But they also cautioned that their findings probably weren’t applicable to a typical Western diet because of our eating habits and lifestyle.

So where does that leave you? Large health organizations like the USDA still recommend that we reduce our intake of saturated fat. Since coconut milk is very high in saturated fat, you may want to limit your intake of coconut milk.

Buying and Storing Coconut Milk

You’ll find coconut milk in different sections of the grocery store. You’ll find some brands of coconut milk beverages in the dairy aisle next to almond milk, soy milk, and other milk alternatives.

But you’ll also find coconut milk in cans in the baking or canned fruit section.

So what’s the difference? Coconut milk in cans is usually thicker, creamier and is often used in recipes. Most brands of canned coconut milk are unsweetened. The product in the dairy aisle might be thinner, may have added sugars or other ingredients and is often used instead of milk.

Cartons of coconut milk should be stored in the refrigerator according to manufacturer instructions and use by the “best by” date that you see stamped on the package. Coconut milk in cans can be stored in the pantry. But once opened, the milk should be refrigerated and used within a few days of opening.

Most manufacturers do not recommend freezing coconut milk.

Cooking With Coconut Milk

Coconut milk is commonly used in foods that are popular in southeast Asia. It is often included in curry sauces, it may be used to flavor rice or in seafood stews. Coconut milk is also a popular beverage and is often used as an ingredient in creamy drinks such as the pina colada.

Low-Carb Vegetarian Protein Foods

Are you a vegetarian interested in reducing the carbohydrate in your diet? Depending on what you’ve been eating before changing to a low-carb (or lower-carb) diet, you may have to pay more attention to getting enough protein, as some of the usual sources of protein for vegetarians, such as whole grains, come with a pretty high load of glucose (starch is basically long chains of glucose). If you eat eggs and/or dairy, getting enough protein isn’t difficult. Vegan folks will have to pay closer attention.

As most vegetarians know, it isn’t just the total amount of protein that is important, but the types of protein. Our bodies need a variety of amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and most plant foods are low in one or more of them relative to what our bodies need. This is one of the reasons it’s important not to rely too heavily on any one plant-based protein source. In addition, proteins from some plant foods aren’t as easily digested or absorbed (this is usually referred to by such closely-related terms as biological value, net protein utilization, bioavailability, and others). This means that the amount of protein in the food may not be the amount your body is actually getting, so it’s good to have a bit of a cushion.​



Pan of fried egg, with cherry-tomatoes and parsley

Eggs are an excellent source of protein, with a distribution of amino acids that is considered “ideal” for the human body. Additionally, eggs are abundant sources of many other nutritional elements, some of which are difficult to get (especially in an easily-absorbed form) from plant sources. These include vitamin B12, choline, vitamin A (retinol) vitamin D, and easily-absorbed forms of lutein and zeaxanthin. If you choose eggs from hens which eat a varied diet (preferably “pastured” hens), the nutrient content of the eggs will be higher. A large egg has 6 grams of protein and less than a gram of carbohydrate.


Dairy Foods (Milk, Yogurt, Cheeses, etc.)

Various types of cheese

Dairy foods like milk, yogurt, and cheeses provide a lot of protein, as well as calcium and riboflavin. It is important to check the label for both natural and added sugars in these foods and make sure they fit into your own low-carb diet plan. Protein in dairy foods:

  • Milk, 1 cup – 8 grams
  • Cottage cheese, ½ cup – 15 grams
  • Yogurt, 1 cup – usually 8-12 grams, check label
  • Soft cheeses (Mozzarella, Brie, Camembert) – 6 grams per oz
  • Medium cheeses (Cheddar, Swiss) – 7 or 8 grams per oz
  • Hard cheeses (Parmesan) – 10 grams per oz

Soy-Based Protein Foods


The star of plant-based proteins is the soybean. If you tolerate soy well (and please be sure you do before diving whole-hog into large amounts, particularly in soy-based processed foods), it can be a real help in getting enough protein without too much carbohydrate. Soybeans are high in fiber, protein, vitamin K, iron, magnesium, copper, manganese, and riboflavin, as well as a variety of phytonutrients, including genistein.


Whole Soy Beans


Whole soybeans are the least processed way of incorporating soybeans into your diet, retaining all of the fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. I especially like black soy beans, as I think they taste quite a lot better than the yellow ones, and can be used in place of other beans in almost any recipe. As an added bonus, the most readily-available brand is organic and comes in BPA-free cans. It is also non-GMO.

A cup of cooked soybeans contains approximately 29 grams of protein, 7 grams of net carbs, and 10 grams of fiber.

Edamame (fresh soybeans) are another choice for whole soybeans.


Soy Milk

soy milk

Made by grinding soy beans with water, soy milk is a decent source of protein (although it varies from brand to brand), but make sure to get unsweetened soy milk, as lots of sugar is added to most brands.



Tofu stir fry
Tofu stir fry. bhofack2/istockphoto

Tofu is made by coagulating soy milk and pressing the water out. It has a mild flavor, and a texture that easily soaks up whatever flavors you add to it. The silken type comes in shelf-stable boxes and is good for blending into shakes, puddings, etc. The refrigerated type is firmer and good for stir-fries and other cooking. You can press out more water to obtain a firmer texture, and bake it to firm it up even more. The amount of protein and carbohydrate in tofu varies by firmness and the method by which it is made. One brand has 20 grams of protein and 2 grams net carb in a half-cup serving.



Tempeh Marinating with Garlic and Ginger in White Dish
Poppy Barach/istockphoto

Tempeh is made from whole soy beans which are cooked, fermented, and pressed into a cake. It is denser than tofu, and doesn’t soak up flavors as tofu does. In looking for nutritional data on tempeh, frankly it’s all over the place, so you’ll need to check the type you purchase. One brand has 19 grams of protein and 12 grams of net carb (plus 5 grams fiber) per 100 grams.

Other Soy Products – Many other soy foods (e.g. some of the soy-based “hot dogs” on the market) are made from soy protein isolate and other similar ingredients which are subjected to a lot of processing. Read labels carefully. (I’m not saying don’t eat them, I’m just saying be aware that you could be eating a highly-processed food.)


A Note on Grain-Based Proteins

Wheat field under sky

Probably the biggest change that vegetarians encounter with a low-carb diet is the need to reduce grains. They contain some protein, and the amino acids in them complement those in soy and other legumes to provide all the essential amino acids. Unfortunately, wheat and most other grains are mostly starch. However, the protein in grains (mainly wheat gluten) can be separated out and used in a few ways.

Note: Sensitivity to wheat and gluten are on the rise. Be sure this isn’t a problem for you before consuming large amounts of wheat gluten.


Seitan and Vital Wheat Gluten

Claudio Rampinini/istockphoto

Seitan is made from the gluten part of wheat, so it is very high in protein and low in carbohydrate. It is sometimes called “wheat meat” or “mock duck”. It is formed into loaves, cubes, etc. One brand has 21 grams of protein, 3 grams of net carbs and 1 gram fiber for a 1/3 cup serving.​

Vital wheat gluten is a powder made from drying wheat gluten. You often find it in recipes for low-carb baked goods. I can’t really comment on its use since I am gluten intolerant and have not tried it.


Rice Protein Powder and Other Protein Powders

Rice protein powder

Unlike wheat, most other grains don’t have enough or the right kind of protein to make something like seitan. However, rice and hemp, as well as other plants like soy and pea can be used to make protein powders. They are all processed to some degree or other but can be useful supplements to the diet in some circumstances.


Nuts and Seeds

Nuts composition

Nuts and Seeds can make a contribution to your nutrional needs, including some protein. Most nuts and seeds have about 8 grams of protein per quarter cup.

Vegetables You Can Enjoy Guilt-Free on a Low-Carb Diet

Vegetables are encouraged when you are on a low-carb diet. But as with most food groups, some vegetables are a better choice than others. Most non-starchy vegetables are very low in carbohydrate, with less than 5 grams in a half-cup serving.

How Can You Tell If a Vegetable Is Low-Carb?

To determine whether a vegetable isn’t starchy and would be good for a low-carb diet, you can look up the nutrition data.

In 1/2 cup cooked or 1 cup raw, it would have no more than 5-6 grams carbohydrate, as well as 3 grams fiber, 0.5-2 grams protein, and 0 grams fat. To find the effective (net) carbs, subtract the fiber grams from the total carbohydrates.

You may find it easier to remember which vegetables are more likely to be low in carbohydrates by thinking of them in four groups based on the part of the plant they come from. There are exceptions, but as a general rule, this works pretty well.

Leafy Vegetables: Lowest in Carbs

Leaves have the least amount of carbohydrate, and what little is in them is wrapped in so much fiber that there is minimal impact on blood sugar. This could be helped by the fact that they are good sources of vitamin K. They are also rich in phytonutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

Examples of leafy vegetables include:

  • Alfalfa sprouts and other sprouts from small seeds have 0.1 grams effective (net) carbohydrates and only 8 calories per cup. But bean sprouts are not as low in carbs. They would end up on the high end of this list.
  • Lettuce and salad greens such as endive, escarole, radicchio, romaine, and baby spinach that you usually eat fresh are the next lowest in carbs, although they have less fiber than heartier greens.
  • Spinach and Swiss chard may be eaten fresh or cooked. They are very low in net carbs, with 0.2  and 0.4 grams in a 1/2 cup serving, respectively.
  • Hearty greens such as collard greens, mustard greens, and kale have many vitamins and nutrients and are low in carbs.
  • Herbs like parsley, cilantro, basil, rosemary, and thyme are low in carbs.
  • Bok choy (Chinese cabbage) is very low in carbs at 0.5 grams per 1/2 cup raw, chopped bok choy.

Stems and Flowers

Stems and flowers are usually a little higher in carbohydrates than the leaves, but still low enough for most low-carb diets. Examples of stems and flowers, from lowest in carbs to higher:

  • Bamboo shoots: Canned bamboo shoots are high in fiber, so a 1/2 cup serving has 1.2 grams net carbs.
  • Celery: It’s a staple as a low-carb and low-calorie crunchy vegetable. Due to the high fiber content, there are 0.7 grams of net carbs in 1/2 cup chopped raw celery.
  • Seaweed, such as nori, is very low in carbs, although it varies by type of seaweed.
  • Mushrooms: They are very low in carbohydrate, and you can use them in many dishes, even grilling them and substituting a portobello mushroom for a hamburger.
  • Cabbage: It’s high in nutrition and fiber, and you can make your dish colorful with red or purple varieties. You can enjoy cabbage cooked, raw, or fermented into sauerkraut.
  • Asparagus: This versatile and elegant spring vegetable is high in fiber, bringing down its net carbs.
  • Fennel: It has 2 grams of net carbs in 1/2 cup, and you can use it in salads or as an onion substitute in cooked dishes, with fewer carbs than onions.
  • Cauliflower: With 2.5 grams of carbs in 1/2 cup of cooked cauliflower, it’s a great substitute for root vegetables such as potatoes and starches such as rice.
  • Broccoli: While broccoli has a few more carbs, it balances them with lots of fiber.
  • Brussels Sprouts: These are on the higher side for carbs compared with the other “stems” at 5.5 grams per half cup, cooked.
  • Artichoke: These are high in fiber, but rank higher in carbs than the other “flowers” and are lower in carbs than all of the “fruits” in the next grouping.

Fruits (Vegetables That Contain the Seeds of the Plant)

The part of the plant that contains seeds is, botanically, the fruit of the plant, although we tend to only call things a fruit if they are sweet. You can identify these if you note the seeds when you cut them open. This group includes peppers, squashes of all types, green beans, tomatoes, okra, and eggplant. Avocado is also a fruit, though lower in carbs than the others. Plantains have the most carbs in this category, which makes sense, as bananas are among the highest-carb fruits.

  • Avocado: A 1/2 cup of California avocado has 1 gram effective (net) carbohydrate, plus 5 grams fiber and 120 calories.
  • Okra: A 1/2 cup serving has 2 grams of net carbs, 2 of grams fiber, and 16 calories.
  • Cucumbers and pickles with no added sugar: While they have only 1.9 grams of carbohydrates per 1/2 cup, they also are very low in fiber.
  • Green beans and wax beans: A 1/2 cup serving has 2 grams of effective (net) carbohydrate plus 2 grams of fiber and 17 calories.
  • Peppers, like green bell peppers, red bell peppers, jalapeno peppers. These vary as the red peppers are indeed sweeter and higher in carbohydrates, but still low enough in net carbs to place in this position on the list.
  • Summer squash and zucchini: These are very low in net carbs and versatile to use in recipes, including making “zoodles” with a spiralizer to substitute for or extend high-carb pasta.
  • Snow peas, snap peas, and pea pods: These often taste sweet and can be enjoyable as a snack or added to a salad or stir-fry. In a 1/2 cup serving, they have 5.25 grams of carbs and 1.5 grams of fiber.
  • Tomatoes: A small tomato has 3.5 grams of carbs and 1.1 grams of fiber.
  • Eggplant: This vegetable can take the place of starchier choices, and has only 2.4 grams of carbs in 1/2 cup of cubes.
  • Tomatillos: These can be used in many south-of-the-border recipes and salsas.

In this group, those with higher carbs are pumpkins and winter squash and spaghetti squash.

Roots and Seeds

This category has the most variation, although in general, root vegetables will be higher in carbs. First, these are the roots that are actually low in carbs and would be a good choice for a low-carb diet.

  • Radishes: These darlings of the spring garden are very easy to grow. They have 1 gram net carbs, 1 gram fiber, and 9 calories in a 1/2 cup serving.
  • Jicama: 1/2 cup of raw jicama slices has 2.25 grams of effective (net) carb plus 3 grams of fiber and 23 calories

Root vegetables that aren’t low, but also aren’t especially high in carbs include:

  • Green onions (scallions): These combine the leaf/stem with the root and so they are lower in carbs, with 3 grams of net carb and 1.5 grams fiber in 1/2 cup chopped raw scallions. That gives green onions the edge over white or red onions, which are only the “root” portion and therefore higher in carbs.
  • Turnips: 1/2 cup raw turnip has 3 grams of effective (net) carbohydrate plus 1 gram of fiber and 18 calories
  • Rutabagas: These have 4 grams of net carbs in a 1/2 cup serving.
  • Celery root (celeriac): 1/2 cup raw celeriac has 4 grams net carbs and 1 gram fiber.
  • Carrots: There are 4 grams of net carbs in 1/2 cup chopped, raw carrot. But often carrots are moved to the “higher carb” list for low-carb diets.
  • Onions: In a 1/2 cup serving, there are 5 grams of carbohydrate, but only about 1 gram of fiber.
  • Leeks: In a 1/2 cup serving, there are 6.5 grams of net carbs.
  • Water chestnuts (canned): Canned water chestnuts have 7 grams of net carbs in a 1/2 cup serving, while chopped fresh water chestnuts have 13 grams.

Meanwhile, many root vegetables end up on the high-carb list, including carrots, beets, winter squash, fresh water chestnuts, parsnips, and potatoes.

Higher-Carb Vegetables

The most problematic vegetables that should generally be avoided when reducing carbohydrates are the starchier and sweeter vegetables.

  • Carrots: Some low-carb diets say to avoid carrots, although they have fewer carbs than the others below
  • Beets: In 1/2 cup raw, there are 5.6 grams of net carbs.
  • Peas: In 1/2 cup frozen, cooked peas there is a little less than 5 grams of net carbs.
  • Winter squashes, such as acorn and butternut:  In 1/2 cup cooked squash, there are 10 grams of net carbohydrate plus 2 grams of fiber. It’s lower for raw squash.
  • Water chestnuts (fresh, chopped): These are higher in carbs than the canned water chestnuts, moving them into the high category.
  • Parsnips: A 1/2 cup raw serving has 9 grams effective (net) carbohydrate plus 3 grams fiber and 50 calories.
  • Potatoes:. Raw potato has 12 grams of net carbs and 2 grams of fiber in 1/2 cup. Cooked, plain potato it has over 14 grams of net carbs for 1/2 cup.
  • Sweet potatoes: A half cup of mashed, baked sweet potato has over 17 grams of net carbs.
  • Corn: A 1/2 cup serving of cooked corn has 12 grams of net carbs.
  • Plantains: A 1/2 cup serving of boiled plantain has over 27 grams of net carbs.

How to Add Low-Carb Vegetables to Your Diet

Most people double or triple the number of vegetables they eat when they change to a low-carb diet. If you are not used to eating a lot of veggies, be mindful of starch traps and try low-substitutes for starchy foods, such as mashed cauliflower, cauliflower “rice,” spaghetti squash, zucchini noodles, and cauliflower “potato” salad.

People on low-carb diets also tend to eat more salads. For example, instead of a chicken sandwich, you can have the chicken on top of a salad, taco salad, Thai-style chicken salad, and other low-carb salads and salad dressings.

If you are considering using organic or non-organic vegetables, keep in mind that some vegetables are more likely to have been cultivated with more pesticides than others.

The vegetable world is plentiful and feeling comfortable handling and preparing vegetables goes a long way to a successful low-carb diet plan. There is a multitude of low-carb vegetable recipes, such as this easy spinach casserole, and fantastic low-carb side dishes such as a low-carb cole slaw.

What About Fruits?

Fruits are generally handled in a different food group because of the natural sugars in fruits that normally increase the carbohydrate load. But, like vegetables, there is are some low-carb fruit options. Fruits do not have to be written off in a low-carb diet. Moderation is key.

A Word From Verywell

Enjoying a low-carb diet can introduce you to new ways to use leafy vegetables and stem vegetables to substitute for starchy vegetables. Make one-third to one-half of your plate from low-carb vegetables, and you’ll be excited by the colors, textures, and flavor.


Non-starchy vegetables. American Diabetes Assoctiation.

USDA Food Composition Databases. USDA.

Why is it important to eat vegetables. USDA.

Meal Timing: What and When to Eat for Performance and Recovery

ACE Professional Resources



We all know that what you eat is important for good health, a strong immune system, and energy for and recovery from exercise. But what about when you eat? Does the timing of your meals impact performance and recovery?


The long-standing advice in the world of sports nutrition is that what you eat and when you eat do, in fact, impact your training goals. Proper nutrition can:

  • Improve performance
  • Decrease injuries
  • Enhance muscle power
  • Increase reaction time
  • Boost strength and endurance
  • Improve recovery

The exact composition of your meals with regards to your macros (protein, carbohydrates and fat) varies from person to person, as you must take into consideration body type (ectomorph, endomorph, mesomorph), type of exercise (aerobic vs. strength), intensity of exercise, duration of exercise and how much time between exercise sessions. With all of these factors to consider, there is no one-size-fits-all answer.

Additionally, most nutrient-timing recommendations are based on studies that have been conducted on various types of athletes (professional-level) across multiple types of sports including, but not limited to, cycling, swimming, running and weight training. Therefore, for most clients, these recommendations should serve as more of a guideline rather than strict dogma.

What to Eat Before Exercising

The main purpose of eating before exercise is to provide your body with enough fuel to sustain your energy level throughout your workout so that you can achieve your workout goals. Carbohydrate-rich foods and fluid help “top off’ glycogen stores, while protein can help to preserve muscle mass. A meal that has a combination of these macros is ideal. High-fat meals are generally not recommended before a workout because fat slows digestion and leaves most people feeling sluggish.

One of the most important tools in your pre-workout arsenal is hydration. When you do not consume enough liquid from water (or decaf/herbal tea, coffee, milk, juice—yes, these all count) or eat enough fruits and vegetables to stay hydrated, your muscles will fatigue much quicker, your coordination will decrease, and you will be more likely to develop muscle cramps. Plus, your body will not be able to regulate its core temperature, and an increase in core body temperature can lead to overheating and exhaustion.

Staying hydrated is an all-day affair. Start your day with at least 8-16 ounces of water and sip it frequently throughout the day. Consuming at least 32 ounces of water during your workout should keep you adequately hydrated. Exercise that lasts longer than an hour and/or takes place in high heat and humidity requires additional fluid intake and the possible addition of electrolytes to replace what is lost in sweat.

What Time Do You Exercise?

Next, consider at what point during the day do you exercise? Whether you work out first thing in the morning, mid-day or in the evening will factor into your meal-timing strategy.

If you work out first thing in the morning, you don’t have much time to eat and allow your food to digest. Because liquid digests faster, a small smoothie might work well as a pre-workout meal. If your experience is that any type of food doesn’t sit well with you, it may be better to eat nothing. In fact, some people believe that exercising in a fasted state will help burn more body fat. Really, it’s a matter of personal preference.

Also, take into consideration the type and duration of exercise that will be performed. If you’re going to do an endurance workout (>60 minutes) or high-intensity interval-training workout, you are at greater risk of glycogen depletion, hypoglycemia and fatigue during exercise. Pre-workout meals are vital, and you might also consider consuming a drink with 30-60 grams of carbohydrates each hour during prolonged exercise.

If you work out later in the day, you can time your meals to help provide you with enough fuel to perform your best. The greater the amount of time between your meal and exercise, the bigger the meal can be. If you have one hour until your workout, a meal or snack containing 1 gram/kg (of body weight) of carbohydrate is appropriate. If you have two hours until your gym session, take in 2 grams/kg of carbohydrate. With three to four hours until your workout, consider a meal with 3-4 grams/kg of carbohydrate. Including 15-20 grams of protein in your pre-workout meal can help with blood-sugar control, maintain or increase muscle mass, and decrease muscle damage during the workout.

What to Eat After You Exercise

The goal of the post-workout meal is to help you recover, rehydrate, refuel, build muscle and improve future performance. Many sports nutrition experts refer to the post-workout “anabolic window of opportunity” when discussing your fuel needs. After your workout, there is an increase in blood flow and insulin sensitivity, which facilitates glucose uptake and glycogen resynthesis. In other words, the hour immediately after you exercise is the time in which your body is most in need of nutrients, so eating the right meal during this time can initiate refueling and tissue repair better than if you wait. More recent research suggests that this window of opportunity is actually a lot bigger than we previously thought, so immediately gulping down a protein shake is not necessary.

For a post-workout meal, aim for 15-25 grams of protein (for tissue repair) and 1-2 grams/kg (of body weight) of carbohydrates per hour of glycogen-depleting exercise. Add 5-10 grams of fat for satiation purposes. You don’t need to worry about protein powder versus whole foods or type of carbohydrates (low-glycemic vs. high-glycemic). More than anything, a well-balanced meal containing a variety of real, whole foods and plenty of fluid is the best post-workout meal you can eat.

Should You Eat Before Bed?

This is another question that has the nutrition world completely polarized. There are those that believe that eating before bed will have your body digest and store the food as body fat and lead to weight gain. But if you exercise in the evening, the nutrients in a post-workout meal will go toward glycogen synthesis and muscle repair. Regardless of the time of day or night, you must nourish the body after exercise to switch from a state of catabolism to anabolism.

The Bottom Line

What and when you eat can make a big difference to your performance and recovery. Well-balanced meals and fluid are important for energy production, recovery, prevention of injuries and proper growth. Both meal composition and meal timing must be individualized for each person based on gender, age, body type, and type, intensity, duration and frequency of activity. Making sure to consume meals that are balanced in macronutrients and composed of real, whole foods is a great place to start.

U Rock Girl! Contributor
Tiffani Bachus, R.D.N., and Erin Macdonald, R.D.N., are the co-founders of U Rock Girl!, a website designed to nourish the mind, body and spirit of women of all ages and stages of life. They have just authored the rockin’ breakfast cookbook, No Excuses! 50 Healthy Ways to ROCK Breakfast! available at


How to Create Effective Treadmill Intervals

 ACE Fitness


Treadmill group classes are popping up all over the country. Boutique studios such as New York-based The Mile High Run Club and Barry’s Bootcamp (BBC) in San Diego, Calif., have introduced coached treadmill runs as part of their programming. High-end big box gyms like Equinox and LifeTime Fitness also offer similar formats for their members. While some formats focus solely on running, others incorporate strength training into this high-intensity interval training (HIIT) format.

How to Create Effective Treadmill Intervals | Angel Chelik | Expert Articles | 4/25/2017

Of course, it’s no secret that HIIT is effective. In fact, research suggests that competitive runners can see significant results by incorporating high-intensity intervals into their training. Gunnarsson and Bangsho (2012) found dramatic performance improvements in runners utilizing the 30-20-10 approach. Participants ran for 30 seconds at low intensity, 20 seconds at medium intensity and 10 seconds at high intensity in three or four five-minute blocks. Each block was followed by a two-minute rest period. In just seven weeks, 1500-meter runners improved their average time by 23 seconds and the 5k runners showed a one-minute improvement, all while decreasing their total workout time by half.

How does this translate into life with our clients and members? Several BBC San Diego members offered their feedback on how incorporating high-intensity interval runs into their weekly routine has improved their running. While “in training,” most members take class two to three times a week. When not “in training,” members tend to go three to four times a week.

Natalie F., a Boston Marathon finisher, was able to take 6 minutes off her half-marathon and 12 minutes off her full marathon. Ronnie G., who is active military, was able to drop his half-marathon time from 2:06 to 1:31 and his full marathon time from 4:34 to 3:26.

Of course, not everyone who takes these types of classes races competitively. These classes might be the only time they run during the week, and can be used to maintain fitness and/or lose weight. For example, when Kerri R. started at BBC she was running steady at a 6.0 mph and sprinting at 8.0 mph. Today, following regular participation in treadmill intervals, her steady run pace is 9.1 to 9.5 mph and her sprinting speed is a 12.1 mph.  She attributes her faster speeds and her ability to quickly get back to “pre-pregnancy” weight to these types of intervals.

If you’re interested in coaching treadmill classes or incorporating treadmill intervals into your clients’ workouts, use these guidelines to help unleash your creativity:

  1. Think about the goal of the interval, such as maintaining speed while changing incline, decreasing speed while increasing incline, or maintaining incline and increasing speed. You have lots of options to choose from. Keep endurance sets between eight and 10 minutes, mid-length sets between four and six minutes and short sets between 30 seconds and three minutes.
  2. What is the duration of the interval?
  3. Determine the work/rest ratio. Use heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to help guide you through this process to determine if more or less rest is needed.
  4. Once you write an interval, decide if there’s a way to repeat the interval in a slightly different way. This allows the client to understand the progress and to be pushed slightly harder during the second round.

Here are two intervals for each of the following sets: endurance, mid-length and short.

Note: In the instructions below, “+1” means increasing the speed by 1 mph (and “+2” means increasing by 2 mph). For example, if the first minute is jogged at 5.0 mph, the second minute would be run at 6.0 mph if “+1” is indicated.

Endurance (8-10 minutes)

Interval #1 (9 minutes)

Coaching cues: Think of the drill in three-minute chunks. You will go through three different speeds, for one minute each, and then you’ll cycle through those intervals two more times to complete a nine-minute set.

  • 1-minute jog 2% (5.0 mph)
  • 1-minute jog +1 1% (6.0 mph)
  • 1-minute run flat (7.0 mph)
  • 1-minute jog 4%
  • 1-minute jog +1 3%
  • 1-minute run 2%
  • 1-minute jog 6%
  • 1-minute jog +1 4%
  • 1-minute run 2%
  • Rest for 2 minutes.

You can always repeat that drill and, because you’re warmed up, you can remove the jog and start the drill at a jog +1, then go to a run and finish at a run +1 (8.0 mph)

Interval #2 (9 minutes)

Coaching cues: The first three minutes of this nine-minute drill is performed at 1% incline; the second three minutes is at 3% incline and then back down to 1% for the final three minutes. You’ll be pushing your speed and then pulling back by one mile an hour as you adjust your incline.

  • 1-minute jog at 1%
  • 1-minute jog +1 1%
  • 1-minute run 1%
  • 1-minute jog +1 at 3%
  • 1-minute run at 3%
  • 1-minute run +1 3%
  • 1-minute run 1%
  • 1-minute run +1 1%
  • 1-minute run +2 1%
  • Rest for 2 minutes.

The drill can be repeated with different inclines.


Mid-length (4-6 minutes)

Interval #1: (6 minutes)

Coaching cues: Think of this six-minute interval in three, two-minute segments. You’ll jog for two minutes, jog +1 for another two minutes and finish in a run for two minutes. The first minute will always be at zero incline, but the second minute you’ll add some incline.

  • 1-minute jog on flat
  • 1-minute jog 5%
  • 1-minute jog +1 flat
  • 1-minute jog +1 4%
  • 1-minute run flat
  • 1-minute run 3%
  • Rest for 1-2 minutes.

This set can be completed again with a faster start pace (jog +1) or an increase on the inclines.

Interval #2 (4 minutes)

Coaching cues: This is a four-minute hill run. You must hold your run speed the entire time: 1 minute each at 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. If you need to stop, carefully jump off the treadmill and catch your breath, and then jump back on and continue at your running pace.

Note: You could also coach this interval with the goal of lasting the entire four minutes. In this case, you would modify the speeds as needed in order to last the full four minutes (instead of taking a break).

  • 1-minute run 2%
  • 1-minute run 4%
  • 1-minute run 6%
  • 1-minute run 8%
  • Rest for 2 minutes.

This drill can be repeated as a descending hill, with the possibility of adding on speeds as you come down the hill.


Short (30 seconds-3 minutes)

Interval #1: (3 minutes)

Coaching cues: This drill lasts three minutes and should be performed three times. The first minute starts on a hill, drops to flat ground and returns back up on the hill to finish. Each set gets lower on inclines, but faster on speeds.

  • 1-minute jog 8%
  • 1-minute run flat
  • 1-minute jog 8%
  • Rest for 1 minute.
  • 1-minute jog +1 6%
  • 1-minute run +1 flat
  • 1-minute jog +1 6%
  • Rest for 90 seconds.
  • 1-minute run 4%
  • 1-minute run +2 flat
  • 1-minute run 4%
  • Rest for 2 minutes.

This drill can be repeated in the reverse order.

Interval #2 (duration varies from 3 minutes to 90 seconds)

Coaching cues: You’re going to hit three different speeds in these three sets: jog, run and sprint. The first set lasts three minutes, the second lasts two minutes and 15 seconds, and the third is only 90 seconds.

  • 1-minute jog 6%
  • 1-minute run 4%
  • 1-minute sprint 2%
  • Rest for 1 minute.
  • 45-second jog 8%
  • 45-second run 6%
  • 45-second sprint 4%
  • Rest for 90 seconds.
  • 30-second jog 10%
  • 30-second run 8%
  • 30-second sprint 6%
  • Rest for 2 minutes.

This drill can be repeated by adding 0.1-0.5 mph on each speed segment.

As you begin to create intervals, make sure to try them out first. When teaching in a group format or one-on-one, make sure that your participants feel challenged yet successful. If you’re expecting everyone to be able to run on a hill and the majority of the class is walking, you’re probably pushing too hard. Perhaps the speed goals were too big, the set was too long, or they weren’t recovered enough before they started the next set. Observing and modifying the drills accordingly is the key to success.